There has been an increase in the use of CBD for many of its therapeutic and medical benefits. This is due to its very minimal side effects and the absence of addiction formation. So, it is used for relieving pain and inflammation, reducing stress and anxiety, offering good sleep etc. One of the big reasons for hesitation among people who want to try is they do not know how it produces an effect in our body. The other question for first time CBD users is “Can you fail a drug test due to CBD?” Understanding the pharmacokinetics of CBD will clear all these doubts.
What Is Pharmacokinetics?
Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that deals with how drugs and other substances move within the body, as well as their metabolism. In other words, it is the study about how the biology of an organism affects the drug. This combined with pharmacodynamics determines the dosage, benefits and side-effect. Shared below are some of the pharmacokinetic aspects of CBD.
Cannabidiol CBD can be administered via inhalation, oral and sublingual consumption, through the skin and intravenously. Inhalation has higher bioavailability of 31% as it bypasses first-pass metabolism and enters the bloodstream directly through the lungs. The next is oromucosal delivery such as tinctures, lozenges, lollipops where you suck on them and it enters the bloodstream through the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. However, you should know that CBD is lipophilic i.e. combines with fats and lipids and hydrophobic; so their oral bioavailability is less. Similarly, cannabidiol edibles have lower bioavailability because they have to undergo first-pass metabolism and absorption is less in the digestive tract due to its hydrophobic nature. Next comes transdermal administration; they bypass the first-pass metabolism, but its hydrophobic nature limits diffusion across skin’s aqueous layer.
CBD is well distributed in highly vascularised organs such as brain, heart, lungs, liver and lower distribution in less vascularised tissues. The distribution is also affected by body weight and diseases affecting blood-tissue barrier permeability; so it varies from individuals and thereby affects the dosage. Having said that, you should know, with heavy dosage it accumulates in adipose tissues and later redistributed to other parts in days or weeks post CBD administration.
CBD is metabolised in the liver, primarily by enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 along with CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 enzymes. After its hydroxylation into 7-hydroxy cannabidiol (7-OH-CBD), it is further metabolised by liver and excreted as faecal matter; to a lesser extent excreted through urine as well.
After you consume cannabidiol, the time required for half the quantity to be eliminated is called elimination half life and this is longer for CBD when compared to THC.
We hope that the details shared above addressed the doubts of CBD users, especially beginners.